Every business cannot function without its management structure. She is his skeleton.
It is not possible to determine which part of the body is most important, but it can certainly be said that “the fish smells from the head.”
The activity of each company is “conducted” by the leader and the success of the organization depends on his good or bad decisions, his style, and relationships with the rest of the “body”. Reference: “To be a leader means to be awake”, https://www.policymatters.net/to-be-a-leader-means-to-be-awake/
The term “leadership style” is derived from the ancient Greek “stilos”. It means “handwriting”.
“Management style” or “Leadership style”
First of all, it is appropriate to point out that the often used synonymous expressions “management style” and “leadership style” are not identical in content.
This can be explained by the difference between the concepts “management” and “leadership” contained in them. The management process is only part of the management process. Reference: “Reorganization of business processes in the organization”, https://w-europe.org/reorganization-of-business-processes-in-the-organization/
A similar thesis has been advocated in the “countries of management”, and is now professed by many many experts.
If it is assumed that the management style generally represents how (by what methods and means) it is performed by someone or some relevant management process, then the management style is how (by what methods and means) it is performed by someone or some management (ie the selection of decisions involving people, most often part of the staff of the relevant organizational unit, but sometimes all its staff and the impact on human objects given the narrow implementation).
In general, the profiled literature does not distinguish between management style and leadership style. This is acceptable, given the fact that leadership is part of governance. This means that when treating the style of management, the style of leadership is inevitably meant.
Different authors give different definitions of this term.
According to some authors, the backbone of leadership is “the approach to carrying out an activity that is inherent in the formal and informal leader in exercising power over other individuals. Leadership style is a characteristic of every manager primarily for how he approaches management problems.
According to other authors, an individual style of leadership is understood as a certain approach or way in which some activity related to the management of the company is carried out. It is compliant and depends on:
- The specific functions arising from the leader’s activity that he should perform: planning, organization, decision-making, goal setting, regulation, control, etc.
- the situations and circumstances in which he finds himself;
- features and characteristics of his personality.
Thus, three concentric circles are formed, which play the role of both restraints and shapers of the individual leadership style. They put their imprint on the behavior of the individual leader and distinguish him, differentiate him, differentiate him from the style of his colleagues.
The management style is a relatively stable system of methods, forms, techniques, and methods of management, which characterizes the features of the practical management activities of the business manager, his handwriting, and management. Leadership style is the way a leader tries to bully his co-workers.
A leader is a man
The leader is above all a living being and as such is influenced in the decision-making process by his temperament, emotionality, relationships with his subordinate associates and his immediate superiors, also by their characteristics. Thus, the style of leadership or management becomes dependent mainly on the team composed of subjects.
As long as there are as many leadership styles as there are leaders, there is only one style for each leader. Just as his handwriting is the only one.
Management style according to Brown
J.A. Brown, according to style, divides leaders into autocrats, democrats, and those who do not interfere in the work of their subordinates.
The autocratic leader issues orders, insists that they be carried out, determines the tasks of the individual groups without asking them for their opinion, independently (individually) makes decisions for punishment and praise maintains distance in relations with subordinates. Leaders – autocrats, in turn, are divided into strict, benevolent, and incompetent.
The strict autocrat is decidedly meticulous, but fair in applying his principles.
It is characterized by perseverance, it always acts according to strict rules. He does not delegate his rights and tries to hold in his hands as many threads of power as possible.
The benevolent autocrat feels the moral responsibility for his people, he wants to create the best possible working conditions for them. Abech alone determines what is good for the workers, who should take what they are given and be happy with.
The incompetent autocrat is despotically fickle, his attitude towards workers depends on his current mood.
A leader-democrat understands his role as a coordinator of the work of the people entrusted to him, can delegate rights, allocating them, so that even during his absence the unit entrusted to him can function well. He is a conductor, not a solo orchestra.
A two-factor understanding of leadership style according to Blake-Mouton
The classification of leadership styles, based on one factor, turns out to be quite one-sided.
Therefore, some researchers are looking for a solution to the problem at the intersection of two factors.
The model proposed by the two authors was developed in the mid-1960s. It gained popularity very quickly and found a place in almost all textbooks in business science that came out later.
The essence of the considered model can be presented as follows. In analyzing the immediate work of the manager in the organization, the authors conclude that each result is obtained in the “force field” of the interaction between production and man.
These are the two factors presented as “concern for production” and “concern for people”.
The first “power line” goes in the direction from minimum to maximum volume of production, expressed in a variety of goods and services.
The maximum profit in terms of volume, the reduction of production costs, etc. become the main goals that the manager seeks to achieve in its immediate activities.
The second “power line” develops in the direction from low to high concern for subordinates.
It is aimed at the maximum combination of working conditions with the needs and desires of the worker. The main goal is related to a high level of motivation and job satisfaction.
Each of the two “lines of force” can be represented as a scale that contains 9 units of increasing the degree of significance of the respective factor.
When they intersect, a network of leadership behavior is formed, which contains 81 possible style configurations. This potential wealth of styles can be represented by combining similar (close) trends, in the form of five major areas of leadership behavior.
Bored Leadership style
It is characterized by a low degree of concern for production and a low degree of concern for people.
Minimal efforts are made to meet the requirements of the work and to support the members of the company (group).
It is characterized by a high degree of concern for production and a low degree of concern for people. Efficiency in the company (group) is the result of organizing working conditions in such a way that the human elements interfere minimally.
Rural leadership style
“RURAL CLUB”. It is characterized by a high degree of concern for people and a low degree of concern for production. Much attention is paid to people’s needs for satisfying relationships.
This leads to a calm social organization of labor and a corresponding pace of production.
GROUP LEADERSHIP STYLE
It is characterized by a high degree of concern for people and a high degree of concern for production. The work is carried out by united people, pursuing a common goal.
Everyone has a “common participation” in the company (group) and this leads to a relationship of trust and respect.
Leadership style “MIDDLE OF THE ROAD”
It is characterized by a medium degree of concern for production and a medium degree of concern for people.
The adequacy of organizational activity is possible by balancing the need to perform the work with the desire to maintain people’s morale at a satisfactory level. An average level of satisfaction and results of the “golden mean” type is achieved.
The results of numerous analyzes show that the most effective style is “9.9.”, In which the leader shows a high degree of concern for people and production, and the most common style is “5.5.” – achieving a balance between the two criteria, compromises and ultimately intermediate results.
The styles “1.9.” and “9.1.” are one-sided, and style “1.1.” rather, shows the leader’s orientation towards satisfying his interests outside the company (group) through some hobby, sport, participation in a reference group, and others.
Management style according to Tanenbaum-Schmid
According to the model of R. Tanenbaum and W. Schmid, management styles can be illustrated with the help of a scale. There are seven types of management styles, which respectively:
- The manager decides and explains his decision,
- The manager convinces his subordinates about the correctness of his decisions,
- The manager presents his ideas and invites the collaborators to inquiries,
- The manager presents his decisions as possible to be changed and expects counterarguments from the collaborators,
- The manager presents a draft decision, receives recommendations and suggestions from the management, and only finally decides,
- The manager determines the limits of freedom for decision-making by the supervised associates and allows them to decide,
- The manager allows the supervised associates to act within the limits set by him.
New and traditional leadership styles
New leadership styles include:
Liberal style. It is a guiding style of free development, ie. “Of leadership” – in the expression Laisser faire, which translated means “let it develop freely”. This ease is understood as “letting go” (without effort) and always shows weaknesses in leadership style.
Authoritarian style. It is defined as a dictatorial and directive style, as it is mainly characterized by: division, decision-making, implementation, limited contact with associates; status symbols, and information restriction.
In this style, the associate has a purely executive function. He receives his instructions from his direct supervisor and must follow them. This is a matter of correct understanding, not of personal cooperation and one’s thinking.
Cooperative style. This leadership style is considered modern today. It is developed in the modern management of business management and is applied in various management models. In this style, the worker becomes a “true collaborator”.
It is no coincidence that the cooperative leadership style is defined as a participatory, democratic, and non-directive style, as it involves the active participation of employees, a conversation between employees instead of orders and foreign control becomes self-control.
- “Management and engineering in organizations”, https://www.worldforgemagazine.com/management-and-engineering-in-organizations/
- “Management forms for company management”, https://newia.info/management-forms-for-company-management/
- “Negotiation strategies in a multicultural business environment”, https://www.nebraskasocialstudies.org/negotiation-strategies-in-a-multicultural-business-environment/
- “Management levels and units”, https://www.yahowto.com/management-levels-and-units/
- “Organization of the work of the manager”, https://phron.org/organization-of-the-work-of-the-manager/
- “Strategies for the formation and use of knowledge in the organization”, https://pgov.org/strategies-knowledge-organization/
- “Management of the organization”, https://www.islandjournal.net/management-of-the-organization/
- “Types of Human Resource Management”, https://stc-montreal.org/types-of-human-resource-management/
- “Modern management in organizations”, https://mstsnl.net/modern-management-in-organizations/
- “Social and ethical responsibilities in management”, https://www.libraryofmu.org/social-and-ethical-responsibilities-in-management/
- “Organizational culture”, https://www.dobrojutro.net/organizational-culture/
Traditional leadership styles
Traditional leadership styles are:
Charismatic (by vocation) leadership style. It is characterized by: personal appearance; mastery in exceptional, crises; admission of subordinates only; lack of care obligations, patronage
Patriarchal leadership style. This style is a positive change in the authoritarian leadership style. The leader plays a dominant but paternal role and seeks greater contact with his co-workers. In principle, he decides for himself, but still gives his orders, not in a commanding tone, but politely. The main characteristics of the patriarchal leadership style are the authority of the father of the family; exercise of domination; admission of subordinates only; loyalty to employees and obligation to provide them.
Autocratic leadership style. It is characterized by: the institution in the foreground; decision-making is common in one hand; hierarchical; separation of decision making and implementation.
Bureaucratic leadership style.