Managers often have to motivate employees in the organization. Even highly educated professionals with many years of experience need motivation.
Many managers believe that this type of professional profile has outgrown the human need for motivation, but this is a mistake. Even managers and directors need external motivational incentives.
What is motivation in management?
Motivation is a process of encouraging yourself and others to work that leads to achieving the personal goals and goals of the organization.
Motivation in management is about motivating the employees of the organization to develop their maximum professional capacity and energy. Reference: “Motivation management”, https://bvop.org/learn/motivationmanagement/
Motivation in managers means the same thing but in their ability to achieve professional capacity and gain strength to pass on to team members.
Modern theories of motivation are divided into two groups: substantive and procedural. The content is based on the identification of those internal motivations that make people act in a specific way.
Procedural proceedings are based on the view that perceptions and knowledge are at the heart of human behavior.
Needs are characterized by the physiological and psychological feeling of a person that something is missing or lacking. The needs are – primary and secondary.
The primary needs are physiological and as a rule, are innate – the need for water, food, the need for breathing, sleep, etc. The secondary needs are psychological – for success, respect, affection, power, belonging to a group, and others.
The primary needs are set genetically, and the secondary ones are realized over time and experience.
Content theories of motivation seek to identify the needs that motivate people to action in determining the scope and content of work.
Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, and David McClelland made the greatest contribution to the formation of modern concepts of motivation. Reference: “The Manager and the Leader as sources of motivation”, https://projectmanagement.freesite.host/the-manager-and-the-leader-as-sources-of-motivation/
According to Maslow, needs can be divided into five categories:
Physiological – which are necessary for survival – food, water, shelter, rest, and more.
Need for safety and confidence in the future – that physiological needs will be met – accident and life insurance and more.
Social needs – from empathy through social interaction, attachment, and support.
Need for respect – self-esteem, personal achievement, competence, recognition.
Need for self-realization – of potential opportunities and growth as a person.
According to Maslow’s theory, all the listed needs can be arranged in the form of a pyramid with a strictly hierarchical structure.
After the advent of the theory, managers of different ranks began to understand that people’s motivation is determined by a wide range of their needs.
They conclude that to motivate a person, they must create an opportunity to meet his needs and in this way, this person must work to achieve the goals of the organization.
The main criticism of Maslow’s theory is that it does not take into account the individual differences of people.
Another theory of motivation, which is based on higher-level needs, was developed by David McClelland. According to him, people have three needs – power, success, and empathy.
These topics are directly related to management and managers
The need for power is expressed as a desire to influence other people. People who feel the need for power in themselves, most often appear as frank and energetic people who are not afraid of confrontation and strive to defend their positions.
They are good speakers and require increased attention from the surrounding km their person.
The need for success is met not by announcing the achieved success, but in the process of bringing to successful completion of work.
The need for empathy is characterized by the need for the presence of acquaintances, friendships, etc.
In the second half of the 1950s, Frederick Herzberger, together with his collaborators, developed his model for motivating by meeting needs.
As a result of his research through many questions, he received many answers, which he grouped into two categories – hygiene factors and motivation.
According to him, the hygienic factors are related to the environment and the motivation to the very nature and essence of the work.
Hygienic factors include – the policy and administration of the organization, working conditions, working conditions, interpersonal relationships with management, the degree of direct control over the work.
The motivation and success of projects in management are related
Motivation includes – success, promotion, recognition, and approval of work results, a high degree of responsibility, and opportunities for creative and business growth. Reference: “Motivating the behavior of the manager”, https://agileprojectmanagement.home.blog/2021/07/10/motivating-the-behavior-of-the-manager/
Hygienic factors are related to the environment and motivation to the nature and nature of the work. There are several criticisms of this theory.
According to her, the presence of hygienic factors will not motivate employees. It will only prevent feelings of dissatisfaction. To motivate the behavior of his employees, the manager is obliged to provide both types of factors.
The presented content theories are based primarily on the needs and related factors that determine people’s behavior.
But despite their revolutionary achievements for their time, they do not take into account the many variables that characterize a particular situation.
This leads to the development of procedural theories of motivation by other researchers in the field of management. The main procedural theories are the theory of expectation, the theory of justice, and the Porter-Lawler model.
The theory of expectation is based on the statement that the presence of active needs is not the only and necessary condition for motivation.
One must also hope that the type of behavior one chooses will lead to some satisfaction. Eg. most students expect that after graduating if they get a good job and work enthusiastically and conscientiously, they can grow in their careers.
This theory emphasizes the possibility of three interrelationships: expectations regarding labor costs – results; expectations regarding results – remuneration; expectations regarding remuneration – satisfaction.
These three factors should work in combination, otherwise, when one loses weight, the motivation will be low.
At the heart of the theory of justice is the postulate that people subjectively determine their attitude to the remuneration received and the effort expended, comparing it with the remuneration of other people performing similar work.
When people feel they are not being paid fairly, they start working worse.
The motivational management model of Porter-Lawler
The Porter-Lawler model is a complex procedural theory of motivation that includes elements of the theory of expectations and the theory of justice. Reference: “Theories of the motivational process in organizations and employees”, https://www.vbprojects.org/theories-of-the-motivational-process-in-organizations-and-employees/
In this model, there are five variables – effort expended, perceptions, results obtained, remuneration, and degree of satisfaction.
The most important conclusion from the practical application of this model is that the resulting work always leads to satisfaction.